The subject property is an active commercial operation located in the City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The 2.3-acre property had a prior history of industrial and commercial use and was the subject of Phase I environmental site assessments (ESAs) and a Phase II investigation. The Phase II investigation identified chemicals in soil and groundwater on the Site at concentrations in excess of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency’s (Ohio EPA’s) Voluntary Action Program (VAP) standards (OAC 3745-300-08(C)). The Phase II investigation also identified complete exposure pathways for human receptors that warranted further evaluation.
Human Health Risk Assessment: In accordance with OAC 3745-300-07(D)(5), applicable standards were determined for all chemicals of concern (COCs) with respect to every pathway determined to be complete or that is only considered to be incomplete as a result of an engineering or institutional control at the Property. COCs were evaluated with respect to complete exposure pathways and COC concentrations were compared to standards for direct contact of soils, soil to indoor air, groundwater to indoor air, unrestricted groundwater use, and impact to important ecological receptors. A Property Specific Risk Assessment (PSRA), was prepared that detailed the evaluation of detected COCs, potentially complete exposure pathways, and potential receptors for the Property.
The property was divided into Areas of Interest (IAs) based on data collected during the Phase I and II ESAs and human health risks were calculated for each IA. A vapor intrusion assessment, including modeling and direct air sampling was also performed to determine indoor air risks to potential future occupants of the site. The results of the risk assessment indicated the following: 1.) following completion of multi-chemical adjustments, the property met applicable VAP standards for direct contact soils exposures to all potential populations; 2.) exposure pathways to COCs in groundwater were incomplete and a site-wide institutional control prohibiting consumption of groundwater for future site users (i.e., deed restriction for potable use) was implemented; 3.) current and future exposures to volatile emissions from soil and groundwater to indoor air, and from soil vapor to indoor air, for the on-site commercial receptor populations did not result in any unacceptable risk to human health.
Risk analysis assisted in the identification of a Building Exclusion Zone to protect future site occupants and site-specific standards were derived based on anticipated future land use to support a request for “No Further Action” status for this property.